Particle Zoo

The Standard Model

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Bosons are particles with an integer spin (0, 1, 2). For an explanation of spin see fermions at first. Bosons with a spin of 0 look the same in all directions, like a circle. Such with a spin of 1 look the same again after a full rotation, like an arrow. Finally, those with a spin of 2 look the same again after half a rotation, like a two-pointed arrow.
The bosons include the gauge bosons, which are the carriers of the four fundamental interactions of nature, as well as the mesons. These are made of two particles with half-integer spin, which results in an integer spin. Furthermore, the nuclei of isotopes of chemical elements with an even amount of nuclear particles (e.g. carbon 12) are counted among the bosons, whereas those with an odd amount of nuclear particles (e.g. gold 197) are fermions.



Atom Dark Energy Baryons Mesons Proton Neutron Other Baryons Pion Kaon D-Meson Other Mesons Hadrons Up-Quark Down-Quark Strange-Quark Charm-Quark Bottom-Quark Top-Quark Quarks Leptons Electron Muon Tauon Fermions Neutrinos Electron-Neutrino Muon-Neutrino Tauon-Neutrino Antimatter Dark Matter Gauge Bosons Photon Gluon W-Boson Z-Boson Graviton Higgs-Boson Bosons