1
H
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 1
D
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Chemical Elements

A Virtual Museum

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Chemical Calculators | Atomic Collider Simulation
 2
He
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 3
Li
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 4
Be
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 5
B
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 6
C
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 7
N
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 8
O
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 9
F
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 10
Ne
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 11
Na
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 12
Mg
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 13
Al
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 14
Si
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 15
P
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 16
S
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 17
Cl
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 18
Ar
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 19
K
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 20
Ca
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 21
Sc
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 22
Ti
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 23
V
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 24
Cr
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 25
Mn
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 26
Fe
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 27
Co
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 28
Ni
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 29
Cu
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 30
Zn
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 31
Ga
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 32
Ge
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 33
As
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 34
Se
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 35
Br
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 36
Kr
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 37
Rb
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 38
Sr
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 39
Y
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 40
Zr
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 41
Nb
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 42
Mo
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 43
Tc
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 44
Ru
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 45
Rh
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 46
Pd
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 47
Ag
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 48
Cd
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 49
In
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 50
Sn
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 51
Sb
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 52
Te
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 53
I
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 54
Xe
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 55
Cs
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 56
Ba
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 57-71
La-Lu

 72
Hf
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Ta
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 74
W
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 75
Re
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 76
Os
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 77
Ir
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 78
Pt
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 79
Au
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 80
Hg
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Tl
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Pb
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 83
Bi
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 84
Po
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 85
At
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 86
Rn
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 87
Fr
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 88
Ra
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 89-103
Ac-Lr

 104
Rf

 105
Db

 106
Sg

 107
Bh

 108
Hs

 109
Mt

 110
Ds

 111
Rg

 112
Cn

 113
Uut

 114
Fl

 115
Uup

 116
Lv

 117
Uus

 118
Uuo

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Element properties
Records, Archives
 57
La
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 58
Ce
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 59
Pr
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 60
Nd
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 61
Pm
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Sm
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 63
Eu
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 64
Gd
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Tb
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 66
Dy
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Ho
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 68
Er
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 69
Tm
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 70
Yb
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 71
Lu
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Islands of Stability
 89
Ac
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 90
Th
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 91
Pa
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 92
U
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 93
Np
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 94
Pu
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 95
Am
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 96
Cm
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 97
Bk
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 98
Cf
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 99
Es
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 100
Fm
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 101
Md
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 102
No
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 103
Lr

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Records of the Chemical Elements


Those are the elements with the most extreme properties. Only stable isotopes and such with extremely long half-lifes are accounted, because for many of the radioactive elements some of the properties aren't known.

Most abundant (Earth): Oxygenabout 30 % of the mass
Most abundant (universe): Hydrogenabout 75 % of the mass of baryonic matter
Rarest (Earth): Xenonabout 0.00000009 % of the mass
Rarest (universe): Tantalumabout 0.00000002 % of the mass of baryonic matter
Discovered first: SulfurPrehistoric, sulfur occurs visibly on Earth's surface.
Discovered last: Rhenium1925
Lightest: Hydrogen0.0899 kg/m³ at 0 °C
Lightest solid: Lithium534 kg/m³ at 0 °C
Heaviest (densest): Osmium22590 kg/m³ at 0 °C
Lowest melting point: Helium-272.2 °C (0.95 K) at 2,5 MPa
Lowest boiling point: Helium-269 °C (4.22 K)
Highest melting point: Carbon (diamond)3547 °C at 1013 hPa
Highest boiling point: Rhenium5596 °C at 1013 hPa
Smallest atom: Hydrogen50 picometers
Largest atom: Caesium520 picometers
Most reactive: FluorineCompounds known with all elements except He and Ne.
Most noble: NeonNo compounds known.
Most noble metal: IridiumStable in aqua regia.
Brightest color: SilverMetallic white
Darkest color: BoronBlack
Most ductile: GoldMinimal thickness by straining 0.00000003 meters (100 atom layers).
Hardest: Carbon (diamond)Mohs hardness 10
Highest tensile strength: Boron5,7 GPa
Chemically most versatile: CarbonBasis of organic chemistry, can form long chains.
Most compounds: HydrogenInvolved in nearly every organic and many inorganic compounds.
Highest possible oxidation number: Ruthenium, Osmium8, in RuO4 and OsO4
Lowest electronegativity: Caesium0.86
Highest electronegativity: Fluorine4.17
Most stable isotopes: Tin10 (112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 124)
Most allotropes: Sulfur~ 30
Most intricate extraction of a pure element: LutetiumAs its first extraction in 1905, 15000 crystallisations in series were needed.
Most expensive: RhodiumRhodium is the rarest metal on Earth and has many industrial applications. In 2008 the price for one gram was about 200 € (300 $).
Most toxic in pure form: BerylliumTiny amounts of inhalated beryllium dust damage the lung irreparably (berylliosis).
Strongest bond between two atoms of the same kind: NitrogenN2 needs 942 kJ/mol to be separated to 2 N
Highest magnetic moment: Holmium10.6 μB
Highest Curie temperature: CobaltLoses its ferromagneticity at 1121 °C
Best electric conductivity at 20 °C: Silver61.35 * 106 A/(V*m)
Best thermal conductivity: Silver429 W/(m*K)
Worst thermal conductivity: Xenon0.00569 W/(m*K)
Highest first ionization energy: Helium23.72 eV
Lowest first ionization energy: Caesium3.76 eV
Most versatile catalysator: PlatinumPlatinum binds oxygen, hydrogen and some other gases and so increases their reactivity.
Special isotopes
Highest binding energy per nuclear particle: Nickel 628.7945 MeV
Lowest mass per nuclear particle: Iron 560.9988 u
Highest difference in binding energy of two neighboring stable isotopes: Helium 3 and 42.6 respectively 7.0 MeV
Lowest binding energy per nuclear particle: Protium (1H)0 MeV, because it has only one nuclear particle.
Lowest binding energy per nuclear particle, if more than one are present: Deuterium (2H)1.1 MeV
Reference isotope for atomic masses: Carbon 12Atomic mass unit u = 1/12 of the mass of 12C
Rarest natural isotope: Tantalum 180m0.012 % of all natural tantalum is the very weak radioactive 180mTa, the only natural occuring nuclear isomer.
Most abundant isotope (Earth): Oxygen 1699.76 % of the natural oxygen is 16O
Most stable radioactive isotope: Tellurium 128 Measured half-life 7.2 * 1024 years
Last stable isotope: Lead 208Bismuth 209 is very weak radioactive, all beyond is weak to strong radioactive.
Last stable isotope with odd neutron and proton number: Nitrogen 147 of each. Only very few of these isotopes are stable, some few larger ones are very long-lived.
Last stable isotope with the same neutron and proton number: Calcium 4020 of each. Beyond this, the number of neutrons is larger than the number of protons.



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