Particle Zoo

The Standard Model

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Fermions are particles with a half-integer spin (1/2, 3/2, ...), contrary to bosons, which have an integer spin. The spin of a particle is its quantum-mechanical angular momentum, a basic property of matter. A particle with a spin of 1/2 has to rotate twice (reciprocal of 1/2) to look the same as before the rotation again. This can be imagined like the hour hand of a clock, which also has to rotate twice to show the same time again.
Fermions are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle, which means that two fermions aren't allowed to be at the same place in the same condition. Therefore matter can't be compressed indefinitely. Another effect of this principle are the shells of the atoms. Baryons, leptons and quarks are fermions.



Atom Dark Energy Baryons Mesons Proton Neutron Other Baryons Pion Kaon D-Meson Other Mesons Hadrons Up-Quark Down-Quark Strange-Quark Charm-Quark Bottom-Quark Top-Quark Quarks Leptons Electron Muon Tauon Fermions Neutrinos Electron-Neutrino Muon-Neutrino Tauon-Neutrino Antimatter Dark Matter Gauge Bosons Photon Gluon W-Boson Z-Boson Graviton Higgs-Boson Bosons