1
H
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 1
D
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Chemical Elements

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Chemical Calculators | Atomic Collider Simulation
 2
He
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 3
Li
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 4
Be
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 5
B
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 6
C
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 7
N
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 8
O
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 9
F
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 10
Ne
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 11
Na
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Mg
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Al
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Si
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P
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S
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Cl
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 18
Ar
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 19
K
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Ca
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Sc
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 22
Ti
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 23
V
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 24
Cr
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 25
Mn
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 26
Fe
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 27
Co
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 28
Ni
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 29
Cu
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 30
Zn
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 31
Ga
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Ge
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 33
As
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 34
Se
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Br
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 36
Kr
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 37
Rb
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 38
Sr
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 39
Y
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 40
Zr
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 41
Nb
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 42
Mo
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 43
Tc
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 44
Ru
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 45
Rh
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 46
Pd
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 47
Ag
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 48
Cd
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 49
In
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 50
Sn
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 51
Sb
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 52
Te
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 53
I
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 54
Xe
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 55
Cs
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Ba
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 57-71
La-Lu

 72
Hf
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 73
Ta
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 74
W
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 75
Re
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 76
Os
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Ir
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 78
Pt
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 79
Au
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Hg
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Tl
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Pb
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Bi
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Po
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At
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 86
Rn
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 87
Fr
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 88
Ra
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 89-103
Ac-Lr

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Rf

 105
Db

 106
Sg

 107
Bh

 108
Hs

 109
Mt

 110
Ds

 111
Rg

 112
Cn

 113
Uut

 114
Fl

 115
Uup

 116
Lv

 117
Uus

 118
Uuo

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La
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 58
Ce
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 59
Pr
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 60
Nd
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 61
Pm
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Sm
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Eu
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Gd
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Tb
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Dy
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Ho
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Er
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Tm
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Yb
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Lu
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Islands of Stability
 89
Ac
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Th
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Pa
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U
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 93
Np
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Pu
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Am
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Cm
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Bk
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Cf
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Es
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Fm
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 101
Md
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 102
No
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 103
Lr

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Islands of Stability


Image: Yuri Organessian

Heavy isotopes map The stability of the elements beyond iron doesn't decrease linearly, because it doesn't depend only on the amount of nuclei, but also on their arrangement. Some combinations are more stable than others. An even amount of protons is positive for the lifespan of isotopes. The number of neutrons in all heavy elements is higher than the number of protons, but it can't become very much higher. The most stable isotopes commonly can be found in the middle of all existing isotopes of an element. Then there are magic numbers for protons and neutrons, which makes those isotopes more stable than their neighbors. Those are the numbers, where the hypothetical shells of an atomic nucleus are filled up. These numbers are for protons 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 114, 120, 126 and for neutrons 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, 184, whereas the larger numbers are not for sure. Isotopes with a magic number are more stable, such with two are much more stable. The last non-radioactive isotope is the double magic 208Pb with 82 protons and 126 neutrons. The neighboring, single magic 209Bi is nearly stable with an extremely long half-life. After this the half-lifes quickly decrease, until they increase again and are rather high between thorium and plutonium. This is the island of relative stability, with peaks at the non-magical 232Th and 238U. Further out are suspected to be real islands of stability with superheavy isotopes, which due to magic or double magic numbers are much more stable than their neighbors, maybe stable enough to be explored detailedly, before they decay, or maybe they are even permanent. Good candidates for island centers that lay deep in the sea of instability are 298Fl (flerovium with 114 protons, 184 neutrons), 304Ubn (unbinilium with 120 protons, 184 neutrons) and 310Ubh (unbihexium with 126 protons, 184 neutrons). All three had to be made synthetically in labs with very high effort and cost, which so far hasn't been achieved.



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